Parenting implies the commitment of an individual or individuals to provide for the physical and psychosocial needs of a child. Many believe that parenting is the most difficult and yet rewarding experience an individual can have. If the parents themselves have had good parents as role models and seek resources, the transition to parenting is easier.
Parenting style, which is the general climate in which a parent socialized a child, differs from parenting practices, the spesific behavioral guidance offer children across the age span. Researchers recognize that parenting styles may work in different ways in different cultures (Cardona, Nicholson, & Fox, 2000)
Authoritarian: Parents have rules
- They expect obedience from the child without any questioning about the reasons behind the rules. They also expect the child to accept the family beliefs and principles without question.
- Give and take is discouraged.
- Children raised with this style of parenting can be shy and withdrawn because of a lack of self-confidence.
- If the parents are somewhat affectionate, the child may be sensitive, submissive, honest, and dependable.
- If affection has been withheld, however, the child may be exhibit rebellious, antisocial behavior.
Authoritative: Parents tend to show respect for the opinions of each of their children by allowing them to be different
- The parents permit discussion if the children do not understand or agree with the rules.
- The parents emphasize that although they (the parents) are the ultimate authority, some negotiation and compromise may take place.
- Tends to result in children who have high self-esteem and are independent, inquisitive, happy, assertive, and highly interactive.
Permissive: Parents have little or no control over the behavior of their children
- If any rules exist in the home, they are inconsistent and unclear.
- The children are generally allowed to decide whether they will follow the rule and to what extent.
- Limits are not set and discipline is inconsistent.
- The children learn that they can get away with any behavior.
- The children are more like the parents and the parents are like the children.
- Children who come from this type of home are typically disrespectful, disobedient, aggressive, irresponsible, and defiant.
Parenting is more effective when parents are able to adjust their parenting techniques according to the child’s development level and when parents are involved and interested in their children’s activities and friends.
James, S.R., Ashwill, J.W. 2007. Nursing Care of Children: Principles and Practice. Elsevier: Missouri